Stock Market Terminology: Basic terms you must know

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Stock Market Terminology
Stock Market Terminology

About Indian Financial Market

The Indian financial market refers to the financial system of India, which includes the institutions, instruments, and regulations that facilitate the transfer of funds between lenders and borrowers. It is an integral part of the Indian economy and plays a crucial role in the allocation of resources and the distribution of wealth.

The Indian financial market consists of several sectors, including the capital market, the money market, and the insurance market.

The capital market is the market for long-term securities, such as stocks, bonds, and debentures. It is divided into two main segments: the primary market, where new securities are issued, and the secondary market, where existing securities are traded. The capital market is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

The money market is the market for short-term securities, such as commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and treasury bills. It plays a crucial role in the management of short-term liquidity in the economy. The money market is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

The insurance market is the market for insurance products, such as life insurance and general insurance. It is regulated by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI).

Other important players in the Indian financial market include banks, non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), and mutual funds. The Indian financial market is also influenced by global financial markets and economic conditions.

What is the Primary Market

The primary market is the financial market where new securities are issued and sold to the public for the first time. This typically involves a company raising capital by selling securities, such as stocks or bonds, to the public. The proceeds from the sale of securities in the primary market go to the issuing company, which can use the funds to finance operations, invest in new projects, or pay off debt.

The primary market is an important source of capital for companies, and it allows investors to buy securities directly from the issuing company. The primary market is also a key source of information about the financial health and future potential of a company, as companies typically provide detailed financial information when issuing securities.

There are several types of securities that can be issued and sold in the primary market, including common stock, preferred stock, and bonds. The primary market is typically accessed through investment banks, which act as intermediaries between the issuing company and the investors.

What is the Secondary Market

The secondary market is the financial market where securities that have been previously issued and sold in the primary market are bought and sold among investors. In the secondary market, investors can buy and sell securities without going through the issuing company.

The secondary market is an important part of the financial system, as it allows investors to buy and sell securities that they may not have been able to purchase in the primary market, and it allows companies to raise additional capital by selling securities to the public.

The secondary market is typically accessed through brokerage firms or financial institutions, which act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers. The secondary market is typically more liquid than the primary market, as there is a larger pool of buyers and sellers.

The most well-known secondary market is the stock market, where investors can buy and sell stocks in publicly traded companies. Other securities that are traded in the secondary market include bonds, derivatives, and other financial instruments.

What is Equity in Share Market

In the stock market, equity refers to the ownership stake that an individual or institution has in a company. When you own equity in a company, you own a small piece of the company and have a claim on a portion of its assets and profits.

Equity can be represented in the form of stocks, which are also known as shares. There are several types of stocks, including common stock and preferred stock, which have different rights and privileges.

Owning equity in a company can provide several benefits, including the potential for capital appreciation (i.e., the value of the stock increasing over time) and the opportunity to receive dividends, which are payments made by the company to its shareholders.

What is Stock Exchange

A stock exchange is a platform where buyers and sellers of stocks, or shares in publicly traded companies, can buy and sell those shares. Stock exchanges provide a transparent and regulated marketplace where buyers and sellers can find each other and transact.

Stock exchanges play a crucial role in the financial system, as they allow companies to raise capital by selling shares of ownership in their company to the public, and they allow investors to buy and sell those shares.

There are many stock exchanges around the world, including the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the NASDAQ, and the London Stock Exchange (LSE). These exchanges have different rules and regulations, and they may trade different types of securities.

To participate in the stock market, an individual or institution must open a brokerage account with a financial institution or brokerage firm. The brokerage firm then acts as an intermediary between the buyer and seller, facilitating the trade and collecting a commission for its services.

What is MCX in India

MCX stands for Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited. It is a commodity exchange based in India that provides a platform for trading in a variety of commodities, including metals, energy, and agricultural products.

MCX is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), and it is the largest commodity exchange in India in terms of the number of futures and options contracts traded.

Traders and investors can buy and sell futures and options contracts on MCX, which allows them to speculate on the price movements of various commodities. This can be an important tool for managing price risk and making informed investment decisions.

To participate in trading on MCX, you’ll need to open a brokerage account with a financial institution or brokerage firm that is a member of the exchange. It’s a good idea to do your own research and consult with a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

What is MSEI

MSEI stands for Metropolitan Stock Exchange of India Limited. It is a stock exchange based in India that provides a platform for trading in a variety of securities, including stocks, bonds, and derivatives.

MSEI is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), and it is the first exchange in India to receive in-principle approval for trading in currency derivatives.

Traders and investors can buy and sell a variety of securities on MSEI, which allows them to speculate on the price movements of various securities. This can be an important tool for managing price risk and making informed investment decisions.

To participate in trading on MSEI, you’ll need to open a brokerage account with a financial institution or brokerage firm that is a member of the exchange. It’s a good idea to do your own research and consult with a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

What is Bull Market

A bull market is a period of time when the stock market is characterized by rising prices and optimism about the future prospects of the market. During a bull market, investors are generally more confident, and they are more likely to buy stocks, driving prices up.

Bull markets are typically associated with economic growth and prosperity, as companies tend to perform well and generate higher profits during these periods. This can lead to higher stock prices, as investors are willing to pay more for shares in companies that are performing well.

It’s worth noting that the length and strength of bull markets can vary, and they are often followed by bear markets, which are characterized by falling prices and pessimism about the market’s future.

What is Bear Market

A bear market is a period of time when the stock market is characterized by falling prices and pessimism about the future prospects of the market. During a bear market, investors are generally less confident, and they are more likely to sell stocks, driving prices down.

Bear markets are typically associated with economic downturns or periods of uncertainty, as companies tend to perform poorly and generate lower profits during these periods. This can lead to lower stock prices, as investors are less willing to pay as much for shares in companies that are performing poorly.

It’s worth noting that the length and severity of bear markets can vary, and they are often followed by bull markets, which are characterized by rising prices and optimism about the market’s future.

What is LTP in Stock Market

In the stock market, LTP stands for “last traded price.” It refers to the price at which a particular stock was last traded on the stock exchange.

The LTP is an important measure of a stock’s price, as it reflects the most recent trade that has occurred for that stock. It can be useful for investors who are interested in buying or selling a particular stock, as it gives them an idea of the current market price for that stock.

The LTP is typically displayed on financial news websites and platforms, and it can be used as a reference point for buying or selling a stock. However, it’s important to note that the LTP is only a snapshot of the stock’s price at a particular point in time, and it may not accurately reflect the stock’s value or future performance.

Hawkish and Dovish Meaning

In the financial markets, the terms “hawkish” and “dovish” are used to describe the stance of central banks or policymakers on monetary policy. A hawkish stance typically refers to a belief that the central bank should be more aggressive in raising interest rates to combat inflation or other economic risks. A dovish stance, on the other hand, refers to a belief that the central bank should be more accommodative and keep interest rates low to stimulate economic growth.

These terms are often used to describe the outlook of central banks or policymakers on monetary policy, and they can have significant implications for the financial markets. For example, if a central bank is perceived as being hawkish, it may lead to an increase in market interest rates and a corresponding decline in stock prices. Conversely, a dovish stance may lead to lower interest rates and a corresponding increase in stock prices.

It’s important to note that these terms are often used metaphorically to describe the outlook of central banks or policymakers, and they are not always tied to specific monetary policy actions.

MTM meaning in Stock Market

In the stock market, MTM stands for “mark-to-market.” It refers to the process of adjusting the value of a financial instrument, such as a stock or bond, to its current market price.

The MTM process is typically used to determine the value of securities that are held in a portfolio or account, and it allows investors to see the current market value of their holdings. The MTM process can also be used to adjust the value of financial instruments for margin or collateral purposes, or to calculate gains or losses on an investment.

The MTM process is an important tool for managing risk and making informed investment decisions, as it allows investors to see the current value of their holdings and make adjustments as needed.

NCDEX in India

NCDEX stands for National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange of India Limited. It is a commodity exchange based in India that provides a platform for trading in a variety of commodities, including agricultural products, metals, and energy.

NCDEX is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), and it is the second-largest commodity exchange in India in terms of the number of futures and options contracts traded.

Traders and investors can buy and sell futures and options contracts on NCDEX, which allows them to speculate on the price movements of various commodities. This can be an important tool for managing price risk and making informed investment decisions.

To participate in trading on NCDEX, you’ll need to open a brokerage account with a financial institution or brokerage firm that is a member of the exchange. It’s a good idea to do your own research and consult with a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

What is Leverage in Stock Market

Leverage refers to the use of borrowed capital to increase the potential return on an investment. Leverage can be achieved by using financial instruments, such as margin accounts or options, to increase the amount of capital available for investing.

Leverage can be a powerful tool for investors, as it allows them to increase their potential returns by using a smaller amount of their own capital. However, leverage also carries some level of risk, as it can amplify losses as well as gains.

There are different types of leverage, and the amount of leverage used can vary depending on the investment strategy and the investor’s risk tolerance. It’s important to carefully consider the risks and potential returns of leverage before using it as part of your investment strategy.

INR Meaning

INR stands for Indian Rupee, which is the official currency of India. It is abbreviated as INR and is represented by the symbol ₹. The rupee is issued and regulated by the Reserve Bank of India, and it is used as a medium of exchange for goods and services in India.

One rupee is divided into 100 paise, and there are coins and banknotes in various denominations in circulation. The rupee is a decimal currency, meaning that the value of a rupee is divided into smaller units called paise.

The value of the rupee is determined by supply and demand in the foreign exchange market, and it can fluctuate against other currencies based on various economic and political factors.

It’s worth noting that the rupee is one of the oldest currencies in the world, and it has a long and rich history dating back to ancient India.

Orders in Stock Market

In the stock market, an order refers to a request to buy or sell a particular security, such as a stock or bond. Orders can be placed with a broker or through an online trading platform.

There are different types of orders that can be placed in the stock market, each with its own set of rules and characteristics. Some common types of orders include:

Market orders: A market order is an order to buy or sell a security at the best available price. Market orders are typically filled quickly, but the price at which they are filled may not be the same as the current market price.

Limit orders: A limit order is an order to buy or sell a security at a specific price or better. For example, if you place a buy limit order at $50 per share, your order will only be filled if the stock is available for purchase at $50 or less. Limit orders give you more control over the price at which your order is filled, but there is no guarantee that the order will be filled at all.

Stop orders: A stop order, also known as a stop-loss order, is an order to buy or sell a security when it reaches a certain price. For example, if you own a stock and you want to sell it if the price drops below a certain level, you can place a sell stop order at that level. Stop orders can be used to limit losses or protect profits.

After Market  Order (AMO): This type of market orders is used after closing the market, when you use after market order then your  broker, take the request on behalf of you and next day as the market opens your order executes. Timing to place an AMO is between 5:00 pm and 9:00 am for NSE, NFO and Currency segments.

GTT Order in Stock Market

A GTT (good-till-time) order is a type of order that is placed with a broker to buy or sell a security at a specific price or better, and remains in effect until a specified time. GTT orders allow investors to specify a time at which they would like their order to expire if it has not yet been filled.

GTT orders can be placed for either a buy or a sell order. When placing a buy GTT order, the investor is indicating that they want to purchase the security at a specific price or better, and the order will remain in effect until the specified time. When placing a sell GTT order, the investor is indicating that they want to sell the security at a specific price or better, and the order will remain in effect until the specified time.

GTT orders are useful for investors who want to set a trade in motion, but don’t want to monitor it constantly. They can also be useful for investors who want to set a trade to occur at a specific time in the future, such as at the opening or closing of the market.

It’s important to note that GTT orders are not guaranteed to be filled, and the actual price at which a GTT order is executed may be different from the specified price. Additionally, GTT orders may be subject to additional fees or charges depending on the brokerage firm and the market conditions.

Target Price in Stock Market

A target price is a projection of the expected price of a security at a specific point in the future. It is often used by analysts and investors as a way to evaluate the potential performance of a security and to determine whether it is a good investment.

Target prices are typically set by analysts who follow a particular security or company and provide recommendations to investors. These analysts use a variety of methods and data sources to come up with their target price estimates, including financial analysis, market trends, and company news.

Target prices are not guaranteed and are subject to change based on various factors that can affect a company’s financial performance and stock price, such as economic conditions, industry trends, and company-specific events.

Investors should be aware that target prices are just estimates and should not be relied upon as a guarantee of future performance. It’s important to do your own research and consider a variety of factors before making any investment decisions.

Stop loss trigger price in Stock Market

In the stock market, a stop-loss order, also known as a stop order, is a type of order that is placed with a broker to sell a security when it reaches a certain price. The price at which the stop order is triggered is known as the stop-loss trigger price.

Stop-loss orders are typically used to limit potential losses on a security that an investor is holding. For example, if you own a stock and you are concerned that the price may drop, you can place a stop-loss order at a certain price to sell the stock if it reaches that price. This can help to protect your investment and limit your potential losses.

Stop-loss orders can be placed at a specific price or as a percentage of the current market price. For example, you could place a stop-loss order at $50 per share, or you could place a stop-loss order at 10% below the current market price.

It’s important to note that stop-loss orders are not guaranteed and may not be filled at the exact price you specify. The price at which a stop-loss order is filled can be affected by market conditions and the liquidity of the security.

Stop-loss orders can be a useful tool for managing risk in the stock market, but it’s important to understand how they work and the potential limitations before using them in your investment strategy

What is Lock in Period in Mutual Fund

In the context of mutual funds, a lock-in period refers to the length of time that an investor must hold onto their units of the fund before they are permitted to sell or redeem them. Lock-in periods are typically imposed on certain types of mutual funds, such as tax-saving or long-term investment funds, in order to encourage investors to stay invested for a specific period of time.

The length of the lock-in period can vary depending on the specific fund and the laws and regulations that apply to it. For example, some tax-saving mutual funds in India have a lock-in period of three years, while others may have a lock-in period of five years.

It’s important to note that during the lock-in period, the value of the mutual fund may go up or down, and the investor may not be able to sell or redeem their units even if the value of the fund declines. This means that it is important for investors to carefully consider the terms of the lock-in period and the potential risks and rewards of investing in a mutual fund with a lock-in period before making a decision.

What is ASBA

ASBA (Application Supported by Blocked Amount) is a payment method used in India for applying to initial public offerings (IPOs), follow-on public offerings (FPOs), and rights issues of listed securities. It is a secure and convenient way for investors to apply for these securities without having to transfer the funds from their bank account to the escrow account of the issuer.

Under the ASBA process, the investor’s bank blocks the required amount in the investor’s bank account until the issue is either fully subscribed or the issue is closed. If the issue is fully subscribed, the blocked amount is transferred to the issuer’s account to pay for the securities. If the issue is not fully subscribed, the blocked amount is released back to the investor’s bank account.

ASBA provides several benefits for investors, including the ability to apply for securities without transferring funds, the convenience of not having to worry about the timing of fund transfer, and the added security of not having to share bank details with the issuer.

To use ASBA, investors must have a bank account with a participating bank and must have the necessary documents, such as a PAN (Permanent Account Number) card, to complete the application process.

What is NFO

NFO (New Fund Offer) is the term used in the mutual fund industry in India to refer to the launch of a new mutual fund scheme. An NFO is a fund raising exercise in which a mutual fund company offers investors the opportunity to invest in a new mutual fund scheme at the time of its launch.

During an NFO, the mutual fund company creates a new mutual fund scheme and offers units of the scheme to investors at the issue price. The issue price is the price at which the mutual fund company sells the units to investors during the NFO period.

NFOs are typically open for a limited period of time, during which investors can apply to purchase units of the new mutual fund scheme. After the NFO period, the mutual fund scheme becomes open for ongoing purchases and redemptions by investors.

NFOs offer investors the opportunity to invest in a new mutual fund scheme at the time of its launch, when it is typically fully invested and has the potential for higher returns. However, it’s important for investors to carefully consider the risks and potential returns of a new mutual fund scheme before investing, as the performance of a mutual fund scheme can vary significantly over time.

What is AMC in Indian Stock Market

In the Indian stock market, AMC stands for Asset Management Company. An AMC is a company that manages the investment of funds on behalf of its clients, usually through mutual funds or other investment vehicles.

AMCs in India are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and are required to follow certain rules and regulations related to the management of investment funds. AMCs are responsible for investing the money of their clients in a diversified portfolio of securities, such as stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments, in order to generate returns for the investors.

There are many AMCs in India, each with a specific investment focus or strategy. Some AMCs specialize in managing equity funds, while others focus on fixed income or debt securities. AMCs also offer a range of mutual fund schemes with different risk profiles and investment objectives, such as growth, income, or balanced funds.

Investors can choose to invest in a mutual fund managed by an AMC in order to gain exposure to a diverse portfolio of securities and to benefit from the expertise of professional fund managers. Mutual funds managed by AMCs are a popular investment option in India, particularly for retail investors who may not have the knowledge or resources to manage their own investments.

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